Contents of the webpage include:
a. Science and Religion
b. Scientists and Scientific Models
c . God's Sovereignty and Individual Freedom of Choice
d. Physics laws and the Creator (3/2/2015)
e. Scientific Investigations and Christian Belief(3/9/2015)
f. Futility and Revelation(3/2015)
g. A Review of the Merton Thesis on the Development of Science and Technology in England
By Robert Wilson (Posted 5/2015)
h. A peom on Science and Religion by Rev Leo (Posted 12/2015)
i. On the Second Law of Thermodynamics(1/2016)
j. A peom on Creation or Evolution by Rev Leo (Posted 5/2016)
k. Infrastructural Settings in the Dimensional Scale Revealed in the Creation(10/2017, New)
g. 回顧默頓的英國科學和技術發展論文 羅伯特·威爾遜(Posted 5/2015)
h. 科學與神學 讚美詩 樓鎧牧師 (12/2015)
j. 創造或進化---樓鎧 2010 春(posted 5/2016)
In 2014, we added this section to remind those of us, who put too much values in human achievements and rationalism, that we should place much more honor to God by placing the centrality of the Jesus Christ crucified as the center of our faith. It is our conviction that true religion and true scientific perspectives are beneficial to each other and not against each other. Why, you may ask? We believe that God created the universe and everything in it as well as all the infrastructures necessary to maintain His creation. True religion is to understand the truth revealed by this Creator through the Bible to know Him, to thank Him, and to worship Him in our lives.True science is to study His creation so that we can, through scientific findings, realize how great our God is and hence truly adore His attributes, His immense power, and His glory.
In the Bible, it revealed that Adam and Eve,due to their innocence, fell into the deceptive scheme of the old cunning serpent devil and hence desperately lost due to their disobedience to their Creator God. God, in His infinite compassion and love towards His children, sent His only begotten Son Jesus Christ, born of a virgin by the Holy Spirit, to the world to demonstrate how to live with a self-denial love toward God and His neighbors. Because of the inability of the Adam's descendants to fulfill the Law, Jesus Christ was sent by His Father as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness. This righteousness is freely given through Jesus Christ to all and on all who believe. For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.(John 3:16-17). This indeed is the Good News.
In Science, it revealed the intricacies of God's creation and all the infrastructures to provide necessary and sufficient conditions to support the beautiful and
awesome creation, especially life. Just holding a new born baby, or looking at the immensity of the sky and shining stars, or the beauty of a small flower, will reveal the greatness of our God for
what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to us. "For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood
by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse, because, although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but became
futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened" (Romans 1:20-21). Science will help all of us to appreciate the wisdom of the design of the infrastructures of the
creation and hence like psalmists, we adore and worship our great God for "The heavens are telling of the glory of God; and their expanse is declaring the work of His
hands."(Ps 19:1). Furthermore, Psalm 95:1-7 encourages us to hear His voice today and come to Him through faith in Jesus Christ to freely receive eternal life as a free gift through His grace
在科學的發現中，透露了創造物和各种架構的奇妙和複雜性；使人了解經由所有的架構,神提供了必要和充分條件，來支持美麗且威嚴可嘆的各種創造物，尤其是生命。單就抱著剛出生不久的嬰兒，或仰望浩瀚的天空和閃閃發光的星星，或美麗的小花朵；藉著這些，神將所能知的有關上帝的，在所造之物中顯示給我們，就可以發現我們神的偉大。 “自從造天地以來，神的永能和神性是明明可知的，雖是眼不能見，但藉著所造之物就可以曉得，叫人無可推諉因為他們雖然知道神，卻不當做神榮耀他，也不感謝他，他們的思念變為虛妄，無知的心就昏暗了。“（羅馬書 1:20-21）。科學可以幫助我們大家體會到設計、創造各個架構的智慧，因此像詩篇作者，我們敬仰和崇拜我們偉大的神 “諸天述說神的榮耀，穹蒼傳揚他的手段。“（詩19:1）。此外，詩95：1-7 鼓勵我們今天要聽到祂的聲音，會感恩地來到祂的面前信耶穌基督，靠祂的恩典給我們這個免費的無比禮物，讓我們靠信耶穌白白地得到永生。
95 O come, let us sing for joy to the Lord,
Let us shout joyfully to the rock of our salvation.
2 Let us come before His presence with thanksgiving,
Let us shout joyfully to Him with psalms.
3 For the Lord is a great God
And a great King above all gods,
4 In whose hand are the depths of the earth,
The peaks of the mountains are His also.
5 The sea is His, for it was He who made it,
And His hands formed the dry land.
6 Come, let us worship and bow down,
Let us kneel before the Lord our Maker.
7 For He is our God,
And we are the people of His pasture and the sheep of His hand.
Today, if you would hear His voice.
詩篇 95:1-7 勸眾歌頌耶和華
Advancement of science depends upon among other things two main elements: formulation of theories based on observations, and verification of a theory by experiments. Theory formulation relies heavily on the analytical tools such as mathematics. Experimental verification depends upon the advancement of instruments. Both the work of theory and design of experiments depend also on clear minds which unfortunately were damaged by the fall of Adam.
From historical records, it is fair to say that we have about less than ten thousands years of civilization. The ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Persia, Greece, India, and China etc, do not have written records more than 10,000 years. It also took a long while to develop mathematical methods. So most of scientific advancements may be attributed to last five hundred years only.
Take astronomy for example. We do have human eyes that can observe the sky but we would say that it took the invention of telescopes to advance observations of the universe. Similarly, the development of calculus among other things helped greatly to develop scientific theories. But both telescopes and calculus are less than 500 years or so.
You can say the same things about all branches of science. Just comparing the medicine of three hundred years ago with modern surgical advances, will tell us the same thing. Why mention this. Good question. Because we need to know the limitations of our resources in investigations in order that we do not misrepresent ourselves due to our ignorance and pride. So here are samples of a few facts that we should know:
1. With the advancement of computer and telescope technology, we can observe far away galaxies. With the advancement of modern physics, we know that our universe is indeed very large to be measured by thousands and millions of light years. It is indeed mind-buckling that the universe is so large with millions of millions of stars and galaxies. However, our observation instruments are still so limited that there are regions far beyond that we can observe.
2. Although we have jets that carry us around the world in commercial travels which are much convenient and comfortable than horse back riding used in the past for long distance journey. The human race is still limited to visit our moon and to send a few satellites to planets in our solar system. This is a far cry from the size of our universe. Although Hollywood can satisfy our curiosity in the Star Trek movies for traveling beyond stars and galaxies, we are pretty much Earth-bound in these days.
3. With all the modern wonders of medicine, people still die everyday. Extension of life is still very limited; yet there are no lacks of claims of vitamins and herbal wonders for big business to extract money from us. It seems that we are limited in our time span in this life and that we are limited by the space and time of our universe.
So we should not act like the illuminati who claim that science trumps religion; human wisdom eliminates the existence of God; and vanity of the human deprived pride dejects the centrality of the cross of Jesus Christ as the crucified Savior in our redemption. We do not even know enough of the universe, let alone how and where and when it was placed into being. So the limitations of all human beings, their universal desperate need of a Savior for salvation, and the righteourness of God should be kept in mind to prevent us from boasting beyond the limitation of our collective knowledge and the reality of finite days of our lives in this wicked world.
Similarly, true religion should respect the scientific findings to avoid the persecution of the scientists such as Galileo by the Catholic establishment in the dark middle age. True religion shall not use genocide to slaughter people with a different belief. Indeed throughout history, there were so many superstitions, false religions, and gurus that used magics, violence, and holy wars to mislead or coerce thousands and millions of people. We can all see the violence and senseless slaughters of innocent people and religion minorities including Christians and other ethnic groups vividly displaying in Iraq, Syria, and Africa in the name of religion today even in the post-modernism 21 Century. It is indeed tragically sad and hopelessly lost to ponder that this kind of terrors and evil atrocities could be the results of the Darwin evolutionism for the human species to evolve onto this kind of advanced civilization.
所以，我們不應該如睿智者們: 主張科學勝過宗教; 人類智慧、消除了上帝的存在;
Here are a few Bible verses to remind all of us.
1. God is outside time and space and we are inside time and space. God is the Creator and we are His creation.
A. Revelation 1:8
8 “I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, “who is and who was and who is to come, the Almighty.”
A. 啟示錄 1:8 8 主上帝說：「我是阿拉法，我是俄梅戛，是昔在、今在、以後永在的全能者。」
B. Isaiah 43:10
10 “You are My witnesses,” declares the Lord,
“And My servant whom I have chosen,
So that you may know and believe Me
And understand that I am He.
Before Me there was no God formed,
And there will be none after Me.
B. 以賽亞書 43:10
C. Revelation 22:13
13 I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.”
C. 啟示錄 22:13 13 我是阿拉法，我是俄梅戛；我是首先的，我是末後的；我是初，我是終。
D. Colossians 1:15-18 On Jesus Christ our Lord
15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17 He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together. 18 He is also head of the body, the church; and He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that He Himself will come to have first place in everything.
D. 歌羅西書 1:15-18 的基督頌
15 愛子是那不能看見之神的像，是首生的，在一切被造的以先。 16 因為萬有都是靠他造的，無論是天上的、地上的，
17 他在萬有之先，萬有也靠他而立。 18 他也是教會全體之首。他是元始，是從死裡首先復生的，
E. Psalm 90:1-12 on God’s Eternity and Man’s Transitoriness.
A Prayer of Moses, the man of God.
90 Lord, You have been our dwelling place in all generations.
2 Before the mountains were born
Or You gave birth to the earth and the world,
Even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God.
3 You turn man back into dust
And say, “Return, O children of men.”
4 For a thousand years in Your sight
Are like yesterday when it passes by,
Or as a watch in the night.
5 You have swept them away like a flood, they fall asleep;
In the morning they are like grass which sprouts anew.
6 In the morning it flourishes and sprouts anew;
Toward evening it fades and withers away.
7 For we have been consumed by Your anger
And by Your wrath we have been dismayed.
8 You have placed our iniquities before You,
Our secret sins in the light of Your presence.
9 For all our days have declined in Your fury;
We have finished our years like a sigh.
10 As for the days of our life, they contain seventy years,
Or if due to strength, eighty years,
Yet their pride is but labor and sorrow;
For soon it is gone and we fly away.
11 Who understands the power of Your anger
And Your fury, according to the fear that is due You?
12 So teach us to number our days,
That we may present to You a heart of wisdom.
E.詩篇90：1-12 神的永恆與人的無常。90 神人摩西的祈禱。 1 主啊，你世世代代做我們的居所。 2 諸山未曾生出，地與世界你未曾造成，從亙古到永遠，你是神。 嘆人生轉瞬即逝 3 你使人歸於塵土，說：「你們世人要歸回。」 4 在你看來，千年如已過的昨日，又如夜間的一更。 5 你叫他們如水沖去，他們如睡一覺。早晨他們如生長的草， 6 早晨發芽生長，晚上割下枯乾。 7 我們因你的怒氣而消滅，因你的憤怒而驚惶。 8 你將我們的罪孽擺在你面前，將我們的隱惡擺在你面光之中。 9 我們經過的日子都在你震怒之下，我們度盡的年歲好像一聲嘆息。 10 我們一生的年日是七十歲，若是強壯可到八十歲，但其中所矜誇的不過是勞苦愁煩；轉眼成空，我們便如飛而去。 11 誰曉得你怒氣的權勢？誰按著你該受的敬畏曉得你的憤怒呢？ 12 求你指教我們怎樣數算自己的日子，好叫我們得著智慧的心。
Advancement of science is a great accomplishment of the human race. In the present age, the pace of accumulation of scientific knowledge is indeed astonishing. As noted before, main purposes of science include finding the infrastructures of the physical world and satisfying a basic human need of the joy of discovery. Our conviction is that true religion and true scientific perspectives are complimentary. True religion is to know the Creator and His attributes such as love, mercy, righteousness, beauty, wisdom, faithfulness, and holiness and hence to admire, praise, and worship our great and awesome God. True science is to investigate, verify, and understand the intricacies, infrastructural aspects, and underlying principles of the physical world and hence scientists enjoy the joy of discovery, and apply findings to improve quality of life. Thus, one of the purposes of science is to study all aspects of the creation and from the scientific findings to appreciate the beauty, wisdom and immense power of our infinite Creator.
A scientist is a human being whose main interest and job are in the advancement of science. All scientists have their limitations in their life span, in their investigation tools, and in the collective knowledge data base. Contributions of scientists continuously bring us great benefits including new medicine, new transportation, new farming technology, etc.
Scientists have different beliefs which may be broadly categorized as those do not believe in a religion and those believing in God. Majority of the present scientific community is of evolutionism orientation and hence belong to the first category.
One of the reason that we point this out is that various theories or models proposed by scientists may sometimes be influenced by their believing systems in their interpretation of the data and in reaching their conclusions.
All scientists do acknowledge that all proposed theories and models are subject to experimental verifications and their validations are limited to the scope supported by available data.
True religion should respect scientific findings and should respect scientists for their collective contributions of our understanding of the universe and things in it and for their dedication in bringing us benefits and new knowledge frontiers.
We should recognize a few attributes of scientific models just like that we should understand the context of the Scripture passages to avoid misunderstanding.
A. Scope of Scientific Investigation-
Science is in the investigation of the physical world. The physical world includes the things visible and invisible to our sensors, yet still in the physical domain. In other words, science does not deal with the spiritual world. Why? because the spiritual things such as faith, love, and holiness are beyond the purposes and measuring capabilities of instruments and hence are generally not interesting to scientists. Hence, all the scientific models are limited to interpretation of the physical world and not spiritual wortld.
B. Validity of scientific theories and models-
1. All scientific theories are subject to experimental verification and hence are continuously subject to available observable data. For example, Newtonic mechanics was universally accepted for several hundred years until the discovery of the relativity theory. Now, we know that the Newtonic mechanics is valid for all the practical speeds which are much less than the speed of light. Thus, all the scientific models have its validation range and are subject to changes if new data prove it otherwise.
2. Thus, all scientific models are transitory in nature. It is subject to changes. For example, there was a great debate in early part of the 20th century concerning the size of the universe. It turned out majority of astronomers at that time voted for the affirmation of the Milky Way as the entirety of the universe. We know now that the universe consists of millions of galaxies.
3. Most of the scientific theories and models applying to the current world are valid because they are verified by many observed data. However, the theories and models to explain the remote past are the weakest because few remote past data are experimentally available and these theories need to be supplemented by various postulations. For example, the big bang theory has its severe limitations. Some scientists asserted that within a very short time interval, say within a second, the universe was formed in its expansion. Since the speed of expansion will likely exceed the speed of light and hence a violation of the relativity principle, so the assertion is that all physical laws are not valid within that time period.
4. Thus , it is prudent to take all the proposals of scientific models with an open mind and with a clear understanding of its transitory nature. Ancient Greek philosophers regarded the world as consisted of five elements. An earlier scientific model of atom looks like a pudding with resins representing atoms. We also have the controversy of ether for awhile. As science advances, we get better and better representation to the reality. Today, we know that an atom consists of a nucleus and various elections orbiting the nucleus. Suffice to say, scientific models for the remote past are subject to more speculations. Similarly, scientific models for predicting remote future need to be subject to many revisions as more future data become available when the time comes.
C. There are two world views. One is that all things, life or non-life, came from evolution including physical laws. It is indeed a great question how the physical laws came from? This view rejects the existence of God or gods. The driving force of evolution is survival of the fittest. And mutations are generally subject to probability and without purposes. The second view is that there is a Creator God who is infinite and the mankind was created with His image and hence is so precious that we should love each other and not killing each other for the survival of the fittest.
C. 有兩種世界觀：其一是，所有的事情，生命或無生命，均來自進化，包括物理定律。(這的確是一個很大的問題，物理規律是怎麼進化來的呢？) 進化的觀點是反對上帝的存在。進化的驅動力是優勝劣敗、適者生存，以及突變的發生是，由或然率決定，沒有蓄意的目的。第二種世界觀是，有一位造物主、無限的上帝、祂用自己的形象創造了人類，因而人類是無比珍貴的，我們應該彼此相愛，而不是為了優勝劣敗、適者生存而互相殘殺的。
Here are a few reminders from the Holy Scripture:
A. John 1: 9-13 Concerning the Birth of Jesus Christ
9 There was the true Light which, coming into the world, enlightens every man. 10 He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him. 11 He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him. 12 But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name, 13 who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.
A. 約翰福音 1:9-13
9 那光是真光，照亮一切生在世上的人。 10 他在世界，世界也是藉著他造的，世界卻不認識他。 11 他到自己的地方來，自己的人倒不接待他。 12 凡接待他的，就是信他名的人，他就賜他們權柄做神的兒女。 13 這等人不是從血氣生的，不是從情慾生的，也不是從人意生的，乃是從神生的。
B. Deuteronomy 6:5
You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might.
B. 申命記 6:5
C. Deuteronomy 7:9
Know therefore that the Lord your God, He is God, the faithful God, who keeps His covenant and His lovingkindness to a thousandth generation with those who love Him and keep His commandments.
C. 申命記 7:9
D. On limitation of Human Wisdom and Life Span
1 Corinthians 1:20-21
20 Where is the wise man? Where is the scribe? Where is the debater of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world? 21 For since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not come to know God, God was well-pleased through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe.
D. 哥林多前書 1:20-21
20 智慧人在哪裡？文士在哪裡？這世上的辯士在哪裡？神豈不是叫這世上的智慧變成愚拙嗎？ 21 世人憑自己的智慧既不認識神，神就樂意用人所當做愚拙的道理，拯救那些信的人，這就是神的智慧了。
E. Romans 11:33-36 On our Great God
33 Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and unfathomable His ways! 34 For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who became His counselor? 35 Or who has first given to Him that it might be paid back to him again? 36 For from Him and through Him and to Him are all things. To Him be the glory forever. Amen.
E. 羅馬書 11:33-36
33 深哉，神豐富的智慧和知識！他的判斷何其難測，他的蹤跡何其難尋！ 34 「誰知道主的心，誰做過他的謀士呢？ 35 誰是先給了他，使他後來償還呢？」 36 因為萬有都是本於他，倚靠他，歸於他。願榮耀歸給他，直到永遠！阿們。
One of the classical questions of religion is "How can God's sovereignty and individual freedom of choice coexist?". In other words, if everything is according to God's will, how can you place the blame on any individual on his/her deeds. Or put in another way, it seems that God's sovereignty and personal freedom are mutually exclusive. This question may have puzzled many people in the human history.
As the science advances, the perceptions of the reality become better developed because of the advancement of mathematics. It turns out our understanding of the physical reality becomes more maturing when better scientific methods/tools help us. For example, the world was thought to be comprised of five basic elements in ancient Greek civilization without the clear understanding of atomic structures. In modern physics, better perception of the world came from the advance of quantum mechanics and the atomic infrastructures.
So the development of the probability theory helps us understand how God's sovereignty may encompass the infrastructure of personal freedom of choice. When dealing with Science and Religion, we would like to remind our readers that science is to investigate the truth revealed in the creations and the religion is dealing with the truth revealed in the Holy Scripture concerning our Creator. True scientific findings and true religion revelations should be supportive and complimentary to each other. So there is no such thing as true science trumps true religion.
With this premise, we would like to see how the probability theory help us understand the complexities of the issues dealing with seemingly conflicting nature of God's sovereignty and individual freedom of choice.
It is clear that an individual will make thousands of thousands of choices in his/her lifetime. Yet, we also hear that God is in control of the history. That is, God is in control of our destiny of human societies. To understand this classical problem, we need to understand that when an individual makes a decision, he/she is making a choice among many possible choices. And the likelihood of each choice may be different. This likelihood is expressed as a frequency distribution of various choices. For example, you can chose to be in various professions but the likelihood of each choice may be different based upon many factors considered in your mind as part of your decision.
Individual can make his/her own free choice for each event in his/her own life. Since each event's probability distribution is based on the physical/social/statistical laws according to creation, the ultimate outcomes of various events individually and collectively can be measured and controlled as well. That is, God's will will prevail on the outcomes of many events or the results of many choices by individual or individuals. This is the basis of many random walks simulations done by modern scientists in solving various physical/social behavior problems.
Let us see a few reminders of the Holy Scripture:
1. God controls the outcomes of many intriguing events
26 In the same way the Spirit also helps our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we should, but the Spirit Himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words; 27 and He who searches the hearts knows what the mind of the Spirit is, because He intercedes for the saints according to the will of God. 28 And we know that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose.
26 況且，我們的軟弱有聖靈幫助。我們本不曉得當怎樣禱告，只是聖靈親自用說不出來的嘆息替我們禱告。 27 鑒察人心的，曉得聖靈的意思，因為聖靈照著神的旨意替聖徒祈求。28 我們曉得萬事都互相效力，叫愛神的人得益處，就是按他旨意被召的人。
2. God is in protection of our lives
4 “I say to you, My friends, do not be afraid of those who kill the body and after that have no more that they can do. 5 But I will warn you whom to fear: fear the One who, after He has killed, has authority to cast into hell; yes, I tell you, fear Him! 6 Are not five sparrows sold for two cents? Yet not one of them is forgotten before God. 7 Indeed, the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Do not fear; you are more valuable than many sparrows.
4 我的朋友，我對你們說，那殺身體以後不能再做什麼的，不要怕他們。 5 我要指示你們當怕的是誰，當怕那殺了以後又有權柄丟在地獄裡的。我實在告訴你們：正要怕他！ 6 五個麻雀不是賣二分銀子嗎？但在神面前，一個也不忘記。 7 就是你們的頭髮，也都被數過了。不要懼怕，你們比許多麻雀還貴重。
3. God is in control of the Future
9 “Remember the former things long past,
For I am God, and there is no other;
I am God, and there is no one like Me,
10 Declaring the end from the beginning,
And from ancient times things which have not been done,
Saying, ‘My purpose will be established,
And I will accomplish all My good pleasure’;
11 Calling a bird of prey from the east,
The man of My purpose from a far country.
Truly I have spoken; truly I will bring it to pass.
I have planned it, surely I will do it.
9 你們要追念上古的事，因為我是神，並無別神。我是神，再沒有能比我的。 10 我從起初指明末後的事，從古時言明未成的事，說：『我的籌算必立定，凡我所喜悅的，我必成就。』11 我召鷙鳥從東方來，召那成就我籌算的人從遠方來。我已說出，也必成就；我已謀定，也必做成。
Physics laws and the Creator
When the Creator created the universe, His creation included the laws which govern operations of the universe. Similarly, when God created Adam and Eve,
He also created a set of biological and chemical laws which govern the functions of the physical body.
There are basically two world views. One is based upon the existence of almighty God and the other is based on man-center concepts without God. The first
world view is built upon the creator God and that He created the universe and everything in it including all the laws governing the operations of all creations.
The second world view excludes God and attributed the origin of the universe to some sort of processes. For example, the human beings are the results of
billion years of evolution from a simple system to a more complex system. The beginning of the universe to a process called big bang. These two world views clash with each other in every fabric
of the world.
Both of these world views are ultimately based upon beliefs. Some may argue that the atheist world view is based upon sciences. This is categorically not
supportable by the scientific investigation.
For example, there is no proof that the laws governing the universe come from the evolution process. "Where the laws come from?" is indeed a great
question for the atheist's worldview holders to ponder about.
例如，沒有證據證明、掌管宇宙的定律是來自演化的過程。 “定律從何而來？” 確實是持有無神論世界觀的人，要好好想一想的一個很大的問題。
As mentioned in earlier articles in this webpage, scientific theories rely upon experimental verification.
There is no experiment which shows that physics laws evolve with time. So physics laws must be there all the time but then who creates the
Scientists are those who study science as a profession and hence scientists are free to take either of the two world views or other world views as they
see fit to their view of the world. Thus in the worldview war, science is neutral but scientists are not neutral because they can be in either side of the war.
The Christian world view is based upon the Creator God who reveals His attributes and power through His creations and more importantly who revealed Himself through the Holy Scripture.
The following are a few reminders from the Scripture.
A. Non-verbal revelation: The Creator has revealed Himself through His creations:
The Works and the Word of God.
19 The heavens are telling of the glory of God; And their expanse is declaring the work of His hands. 2 Day to day pours forth speech, And night to night reveals knowledge. 3 There is no speech, nor are there words; Their voice is not heard. 4 Their [a]line has gone out through all the earth, And their utterances to the end of the world. In them He has placed a tent for the sun, 5 Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber; It rejoices as a strong man to run his course. 6 Its rising is from [b]one end of the heavens, And its circuit to the [c]other end of them; And there is nothing hidden from its heat.
甲. ‧非口頭言語上的啟示: 上帝從祂所創造宇宙萬物中啟示祂自己
1 諸 天 述 說 神 的 榮 耀 ； 穹 蒼 傳 揚 他 的 手 段 。
2 這 日 到 那 日 發 出 言 語 ； 這 夜 到 那 夜 傳 出 知 識 。
3 無 言 無 語 ， 也 無 聲 音 可 聽 。
4 他 的 量 帶 通 遍 天 下 ， 他 的 言 語 傳 到 地 極 。 神 在 其 間 為 太 陽 安 設 帳 幕 ；
5 太 陽 如 同 新 郎 出 洞 房 ， 又 如 勇 士 歡 然 奔 路 。
6 他 從 天 這 邊 出 來 ， 繞 到 天 那 邊 ， 沒 有 一 物 被 隱 藏 不 得 他 的 熱 氣 。
B. Verbal Revelation through the Scripture- God revealed Himself in Old Testament through the prophets and in the last days, through His Son Jesus Christ in New Testament. A few sample follows.
The law of the Lord is [d]perfect, restoring the soul; The testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The precepts of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart; The commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring forever; The judgments of the Lord are true; they are righteous altogether.
乙. 上帝旣在古時藉着眾先知多方多次的曉諭列祖(記錄在舊約),就在這末世,藉着祂兒子嘵諭我們(記錄在新約). 聖經是上帝用祂的言語來啟示祂自己. 下例是聖經的一些提示:
耶和華的律法全備 能甦醒人心； 耶和華的法度確定 ， 能使愚人有智慧。
9 耶和華的道理 潔淨，存到永遠；耶和華的典章真實，全然公義.
C. The fools and unbelief
Folly and Wickedness of Men.
14 The fool has said in his heart, “There is no God.” They are corrupt, they have committed abominable deeds; There is no one who does good.
4 The wicked, in the haughtiness of his countenance, does not seek Him. All his thoughts are, “There is no God.”
14 愚 頑 人 心 裡 說 ： 沒 有 神 。 他 們 都 是 邪 惡 ， 行 了 可 憎 惡 的 事 ； 沒 有 一 個 人 行 善 。
詩 篇 10:4
4 惡 人 面 帶 驕 傲 ， 說 ： 耶 和 華 必 不 追 究 ； 他 一 切 所 想 的 都 以 為 沒 有 神
D. Unbelief and Its Consequences
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth [l]in unrighteousness, 19 because that which is known about God is evident [m]within them; for God made it evident to them. 20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse. 21 For even though they knew God, they did not [n]honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
原 來 ， 神 的 忿 怒 從 天 上 顯 明 在 一 切 不 虔 不 義 的 人 身 上 ， 就 是 那 些 行 不 義 阻 擋 真 理 的 人 。
19 神 的 事 情 ， 人 所 能 知 道 的 ， 原 顯 明 在 人 心 裡 ， 因 為 神 已 經 給 他 們 顯 明 。
20 自 從 造 天 地 以 來 ， 神 的 永 能 和 神 性 是 明 明 可 知 的 ， 雖 是 眼 不 能 見 ， 但 藉 著 所 造 之 物 就 可 以 曉 得 ， 叫 人 無 可 推 諉 。
21 因 為 ， 他 們 雖 然 知 道 神 ， 卻 不 當 作 神 榮 耀 他 ， 也 不 感 謝 他 。 他 們 的 思 念 變 為 虛 妄 ， 無 知 的 心 就 昏 暗 了 。
Science is to study the physical world particularly to find out the infrastructures underneath various processes. For example, in atomic physics, scientists investigate various components of an atom and how they work. Modern atomic model includes an nucleus surrounded by various electrons orbiting around it. In medicine, medical doctors study the anatomy of the human body and the marvelous biology which describes how each organ functions and how the organs work together to give us life.
According to the Holy Scripture, the Creator revealed Himself through two main venues; an non-verbal means and a verbal means. First, God revealed His eternal power and nature through His creations. This means that everybody through the created world such as the universe, human bodies, flowers, and physical laws, etc should know this Creator. For example, looking at the vastness of the universe, or looking at the complexity of human body, and/or the beauty and variety of flowers, should lead to appreciation of the power and wisdom of this Creator. The second main way that God revealed Himself was through His Words as recorded in the Holy Scriptures. For example, Ps 19:1-2 tell us the following:
1 The heavens are telling of the glory of God; And their expanse is declaring the work of His hands.
2 Day to day pours forth speech, And night to night reveals knowledge.
Actually regarding the revelation from the Scripture, the Bible tells us that God is indeed very angry at people who deliberately try to suppress the truth revealed in His Creation and in our hearts.
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them.
18 原來，神的憤怒從天上顯明在一切不虔不義的人身上，就是那些行不義阻擋真理的人。 19 神的事情人所能知道的，原顯明在人心裡，因為神已經給他們顯明。
We all know that modern science advances greatly in both scope and depth of knowledge for the last few hundred years. Science has found out many infrastructural details of His creations that enhance our understanding of the greatness and immense power of this God. Thanks to scientific findings, we have a better and deeper understanding of our finiteness and a heartfelt gratitude of this almighty Creator for the extent of love He showed us;
- create such a complex biological system in our body.
- vastness of infrastructures He created from our immune systems to the solar system to support our physical lives in this earth.
We would like to reminder ourselves that science investigation is limited to the physical world. Science may tell us how the world functions through its various infrastructures but science is not involved with why the world exists in the first place. Science may show us how a person dies but science can not tell the origin of death. However, revelations in the Scripture includes both physical and spiritual things, although it focuses on the history with the human race and provisions of this Creator.
According to the Scripture, in the past God revealed Himself through various prophets as recorded in the Old Testament, but in the last days that we live in He revealed Himself through His only begotten Son Jesus Christ as recorded in the New Testament. It is through the revelations in the Bible that we know;
- Why He created the world
- Why all the living systems are decaying and subject to death eventually
- How He sent His Son to provide the way out of this death grip.
- Through our belief in His Son Jesus Christ, this Creator offers us eternal life in enjoying Him.
Although the Bible is not a scientific manual, it did reveal a few features of His creations. We can gain greater appreciation of His wisdom and power through scientific investigations of the infrastructures of His created world. However, even if we were to know the world in every details, we will still be in a situation beyond sadness to live our inability, either through ourselves individually or through the human race collectively, to free us from the death grip of our world. It is here that the Scripture is so precious beyond description because it tell us Who is God and What His love towards the human race:
-God is light and in Him there is no darkness.
-God is love and He so loved the world that He offered us the way out this death grip.
-God is so gracious that He offers us eternal life with Him through believing in His only begotten Son Jesus Christ our Lord.
-God told us how the current wicked world will end and how the blessed future will come for us; a world without tears, pains, evils, and death but a blessed new universe with eternal fellowship with our Lord Jesus Christ who loves us.
The following is a sample of scriptural reminders:
16 For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.
13 I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.
21 :1 Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth passed away, and there is no longer any sea.
Jesus said to him, I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through Me.
16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, But the righteous man shall live by faith.
16 我不以福音為恥，這福音本是神的大能，要救一切相信的，先是猶太人，後是希臘人。 17 因為神的義正在這福音上顯明出來，這義是本於信以至於信，如經上所記：「義人必因信得生。」
Futility means that a process does not reach its goal. In other words, people were frustrated because the outcomes of many events in their lives were out of controls and were not as they planed. Actually, frustration or futility is a major issue in life, not only for individuals, but also for a society or a nation, or the whole world as well.
Scientific investigations have shown that this is indeed the case in the physical world. Actually, it is so prevalent that the phenomena have been codified as the second law of thermodynamics. There are many ways of expressing the second law of thermodynamics. The following are a few examples.
1. Efficiency of any physical system is always less than one because of waste heat generation. In fact, loss of waste heat is so bad, most mechanical systems such as automobiles have less than 30 percent efficiency. Implication of this truth is so immense that it is the underlined issue impacting the quality of life in any society. Just think about impact of futility on the energy crises we face.
2. Degree of chaos in a system will always increase unless new energy is added. Put it in another way. Unless extra effort is exercised, chaos of your teen-ager's room will certainly increase forever.
3. Productivity of your vegetable garden suffers greatly because of bugs and weeds. This means that you have to share your vegetables with the bugs in your garden and the size of your harvest is greatly affected by the weeds in your vegetable garden.
4. Larger the size of a system, the smaller the productivity will be unless extra effort is used to manage the system. Or put in another way, more energy is needed to evolve from a simple system into a more complex system. This will explain why a private company is more efficient than a big government. This may also show that random evolution from a simple system to a higher more complex system is not possible unless more effort/energy is added.
The preceding observations may help to explain many frustrations we endure in our lives. Good examples are;
- Devils are in the details
- The Murphy's law: anything that can go wrong, will go wrong.
- All good deeds will get punished
Interesting enough, science can explain the detailed mechanism of a process but not the origin of the law governing that process.
According to the Scripture, the futility comes to us through sin. In other words, futility happens to created world because sin entered into the world. Put in another way, when a society forsakes their authority/elders and becomes lawless, more chaos and more frustration and more futility will be prevalent. When everything goes, so go values or standards of your life. This explains quite accurately the post-modernism society.
The following are a few reminders from the Scripture:
A. Gen 3:17-19
17 Then to Adam He said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree about which I commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat from it’; Cursed is the ground because of you;In toil you will eat of it , All the days of your life.
18 “Both thorns and thistles it shall grow for you;And you will eat the plants of the field;
19 By the sweat of your face, You will eat bread,
Till you return to the ground, Because from it you were taken;
For you are dust, And to dust you shall return.”
A. 創3: 7-1917 又對亞當說：「你既聽從妻子的話，吃了我所吩咐你不可吃的那樹上的果子，地必為你的緣故受咒詛，你必終身勞苦，才能從地裡得吃的。 18 地必給你長出荊棘和蒺藜來，你也要吃田間的菜蔬。 19 你必汗流滿面才得糊口，直到你歸了土，因為你是從土而出的。你本是塵土，仍要歸於塵土。」
B. Romans 1: 18-32
18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. 20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse. 21 For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened. 22 Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and crawling creatures.
24 Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them. 25 For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.
26 For this reason God gave them over to degrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is unnatural, 27 and in the same way also the men abandoned the natural function of the woman and burned in their desire toward one another, men with men committing indecent acts and receiving in their own persons the due penalty of their error.
28 And just as they did not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper, 29 being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips, 30 slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31 without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful; 32 and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but also give hearty approval to those who practice them.
B. 羅馬書 1：18-3218 原來，神的憤怒從天上顯明在一切不虔不義的人身上，就是那些行不義阻擋真理的人。19 神的事情人所能知道的，原顯明在人心裡，因為神已經給他們顯明。 20 自從造天地以來，神的永能和神性是明明可知的，雖是眼不能見，但藉著所造之物就可以曉得，叫人無可推諉。 21 因為他們雖然知道神，卻不當做神榮耀他，也不感謝他，他們的思念變為虛妄，無知的心就昏暗了。 22 自稱為聰明，反成了愚拙， 23 將不能朽壞之神的榮耀變為偶像，彷彿必朽壞的人和飛禽、走獸、昆蟲的樣式。
24 所以，神任憑他們逞著心裡的情慾行汙穢的事，以致彼此玷辱自己的身體。 25 他們將神的真實變為虛謊，去敬拜侍奉受造之物，不敬奉那造物的主——主乃是可稱頌的，直到永遠！阿們。
26 因此，神任憑他們放縱可羞恥的情慾。他們的女人把順性的用處變為逆性的用處。 27 男人也是如此，棄了女人順性的用處，慾火攻心，彼此貪戀，男和男行可羞恥的事，就在自己身上受這妄為當得的報應。
28 他們既然故意不認識神，神就任憑他們存邪僻的心，行那些不合理的事 ： 29 裝滿了各樣不義、邪惡、貪婪、惡毒[a]；滿心是嫉妒、凶殺、爭競、詭詐、毒恨； 30 又是讒毀的、背後說人的、怨恨神的[b]、侮慢人的、狂傲的、自誇的、捏造惡事的、違背父母的、 31 無知的、背約的、無親情的、不憐憫人的。 32 他們雖知道神判定行這樣事的人是當死的，然而他們不但自己去行，還喜歡別人去行。
In 1935 a Harvard doctoral candidate, Robert A. Merton, submitted a dissertation titled “Science, Technology & Society in Seventeenth Century England.”
Although much of the document concerned the influence of the technical needs of mining, transportation, and warfare, the portion receiving the most attention asserted that the astounding and
unprecedented progress in science and technology that occurred in the latter half of the seventeenth century was due to the influence of Puritanism. The study became a classic in both the history of
science and the sociology of science, and its section pertaining to the Puritans is referred to as the Merton Thesis. The Thesis’ importance is due to two factors. Firstly, it compellingly addresses
the important question of why, despite the appearance and disappearance of many sophisticated civilizations containing intelligent and insightful people throughout human history, a durable and sound
science and technology base had not developed, yet suddenly flourished in seventeenth century England. Secondly, at the time of the 1935 publication its answer was a challenge to the received wisdom
which saw only a negative historical relationship between science and religion. This paper will review Merton’s argument, various scholarly responses to it, and provide an evaluation of both. It will
conclude that the Merton Thesis is true though not all of the reasons Merton provided were helpful in understanding the phenomenon in question, and it will be further concluded that the Puritan’s
religious motivations can be buttressed by factors Merton did not consider.
Merton’s dissertation was published in book form in 1970, in the preface of which he commented that in 1935 the possibility of science and religion having an
encouraging relationship was considered absurd to most of the scholarly community. He noted the titles of such publications as History of the Warfare between Science and Theology (1896) and History
of the Conflict Between Religion and Science (1910) as exemplifying the prevailing view. While acknowledging the view, common among historians of science, that science has an internal
progressive dynamic that is little affected by a society’s social framework, he affirmed his principle assumption that the development of science will only occur in societies that provide the
cultural and material conditions for this development. He rejected the “heroic” explanation that requires the simultaneous appearance of a population of geniuses because, as he put it, “…a special
talent can rarely find expression when the world will have none of it,” and during the seventeenth century no enterprise could prosper if it did not have religious sanction. It was not only the
Puritan who could have provided these conditions, but, Merton observed, at one time they did. He agreed that eventually science and technology acquired autonomy and apparently grew out of religion’s
默頓的博士論文於1970年出版成書；在序文中、他評論說，在1935時、科學和宗教可能有一個令人鼓舞的關係的論說，會被大多數學術界認為是荒謬的 。他指出標題為科學與神學的戰爭（1896年）和歷史宗教與科學之間的衝突史（1910）、等類似的出版物為當時的主流觀點、作為例證。 雖然默頓承認、科學史學家普遍的觀點，科學有一個內部漸進動態、是少被社會的社會框架影響；他仍然肯定了他的主要前提是科學的發展，只會發生在、提供了這種發展的文化和物質條件的社會。他拒絕了“英雄式”、需要同時出現許多天才的說法；因為，正如他所說那樣，“......當世界沒有提供能表現的機會、環境條件時，一個特殊的才能、很少能表現出來”. 並且在十七世紀，如果沒有宗教的允許，沒有企業可以繁榮發展的。 這不僅是、只有清教徒可以提供這些條件，而且，默頓指出，有一段時間、他們確實做到了。他認為，漸漸地、科學和技術最後取得了自主權，顯然脫離了宗教的管範、許可。
Merton began his study by determining when English interest in science began to proliferate and when the interest bore fruit. He cataloged each of the
people listed in the English Dictionary of National Biography whose span accommodated the seventeenth-century period studied (about six thousand worthies). He traced when they chose an interest in a
vocation, noting a significant increase in initial interest in science and technology fields during the first half of the century, and which reached a peak during the 1640s. He hypothesized that the
fruition of significant discoveries would occur several decades later. A 1908 German Handbook listed internationally significant scientific discoveries, and Merton charted the English ones by date.
This showed a sharp jump in the listings during the 1640 decade, which sustained until the end of the century, confirming the expectation. The question remained as to what feature of English life
could explain this phenomenon..
Merton researched the religious inclinations of the membership of the Royal Society for clues. He found that seven of the ten original (1645) members of the
predecessor organization, the “invisible college,” were Puritan, one was clearly not, and the orientation of the remaining two could not be determined. He also affirmed that
among the original list of members of the Royal society in 1663, 42 of the 68 for whom information pertaining to religious leaning is available, were clearly Puritan. Inasmuch as the Puritans comprised a relatively small minority in the English population, the fact that that they constituted 62 percent of the initial membership of the Society becomes even more striking.
Further, Merton noted that the relationship between Puritanism and the Royal Society was widely recognized at the time and that, following the Restoration of
Charles II, a frequent complaint about the Society was its Puritan cast.
Some prior and contemporary literature on science and religion, also out of the mainstream, supported Merton’s contention. The 1885 article of the Swiss
naturalist Alphonse de Candolle, “The Influence of Religion on the development of the Sciences” presaged Merton’s findings. This study determined that the membership in the two dominant scientific
societies of the time, the Academy of Paris and the Royal Society of London, was substantially over supplied by Protestants and thus unrepresentative of the general population. This anomaly was also
noted in 1935 by historian Dorothy Stimson in “Puritanism and the New Philosophy in Seventeenth-Century England” and English Professor Richard Jones a year later in “The Advancement of Learning and
Piety.” Slightly later, Belgian historian Jean Pelseneer published a quantitative study of the science of sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Belgian and concluded that modern science was born of
the Reformation as, overwhelmingly, the dominant contributors were Protestants.
一些先前和當代有關科學和宗教的文學，也走出了主流、自成一格，支持了默頓的論述。瑞士博物學家Alphonse de Candolle的1885年的文章，“宗教對科學發展的影響”，預示著默頓的調查結果。 該研究確定了當時兩個主要的科學學會、巴黎科學院和倫敦皇家學會的成員，大幅、超出比例的，由更正教徒擔任，因此不具一般普通人群的代表性。這種異常也在1935年由歷史學家Dorothy Stimson，在“清教主義和新哲學在十七世紀的英國”，和英國教授Richard Jones，在一年後的“學習和虔誠的進步” 中指出。稍晚一些，比利時歷史學家Jean Pelseneer 公佈的十六、十七世紀，在比利時的科學的定量研究；並得出結論認為，現代科學誕生的改革作為，壓倒性的、佔主導地位的貢獻者，是更正教徒。
In contrast to the favorable reports, one critic, sociologist James Carroll, complained that Merton had “…a feeble grasp of the kaleidoscopic religious events
of the period”; that he had provided no measure of the intensity of the feeling or motivations of the scientists; and that Merton’s discovery of Protestants in the Royal Society was not surprising
since Catholics were banned from public life. However, Merton addressed these criticisms, for instance, by noting that he had counted Puritans Protestants rather than all Protestants and that
Catholics, although formally banned, were nevertheless encouraged to participate in and contribute to science. Thus it appears that Merton, by statistical inference, showed that Puritans had an
inordinate influence in the development of modern science and technology during seventeenth century England-a conclusion widely accepted by almost all of Merton’s critics.
與有利的報導相反，一位評論者，社會學家James Carroll，批評說，默頓只有“......微弱的掌握、這一時期、如萬花筒般的宗教活動”；且他沒有提供任何衡量，顯示科學家的感覺或動機的強度；而且默頓的、更正教徒在英國皇家學會的發現，並不令人感到意外；因為天主教徒被禁止從事公共活動。 然而，默頓應對了這些批評，例如，他強調，他是計算、更正教的清教徒人數，而不是所有的更正教徒；天主教徒，儘管正式禁止，但被鼓勵、參與和促進科學的活動。如此看來，默頓，通過統計推斷，顯示清教徒在、十七世紀英格蘭的現代科學與技術的發展，有很大的影響；此一結論，幾乎被所有默頓的批評者、廣泛接受。
The question remained as to why the Puritans dominated the explosion of science and technology. They were highly influenced by the Reformed theology of John
Calvin, as were other versions of ascetic Protestantism in England at the time. From Calvinism and Puritan literature Merton extracted several interlocking concerns which provided an “ethos” for the
Puritan’s success. These were the glorification of God, predestination (or the Puritans state of grace), and learning control of nature by which technological development could ease the burdens of
Merton pointed to a Puritan's fundamental duty to glorify God, as evidenced by the first question in the Westminster Shorter Catechism and buttressed by writings of the eminent Puritan divine Richard Baxter. Baxter taught that good works−public service in particular−bring glory to God, and promoted diligence in all work efforts as God-glorifying and as “necessary for the preservation of the faculties of the mind.” Baxter found the gift of human reason particularly praiseworthy because it enables man to intelligently “glorify God by aiding him to appreciate His works” in a uniquely human way. Since reason is required to plan and interpret experiments, such praise surely advanced scientific thinking. It also meant Puritans came to highly value education, including mathematics and physics, conforming as they did to the idea that, as Baxter put it, “Knowledge is to be valued according to its usefulness.” Puritans placed great value on utility, as their vision was on reshaping the world, not just ecclesiastical structures. As part of God’s dominion over nature mandate to humans, they needed to understand, and, if appropriate, control nature. The Puritan focus on the glory of God as revealed in His creation was distinctive in the history of religions.
默頓指出，清教徒的根本職責，是榮耀上帝，就以威斯敏斯特、小要理問答第一個問題為證，並由著名清教徒牧師巴克斯特(Richard Baxter) 的著作來加強證明。巴克斯特教導說，好的工作、特別是公共服務，給神帶來榮耀，並在所有的工作中、努力勤奮，是為榮耀上帝，並為 “保存心靈功能所必需的” 的努力 。 巴克斯特發現，人類有值得稱讚的、理智天賦，理由是，因為它讓人類能夠、有智能地、用人類獨有的方式，“幫助人們來感恩祂的工作、榮耀神” 。既然計劃和解釋實驗是需要理智，這樣的讚美、肯定促進了科學的思維。這也意味著清教徒是高度重視教育，包括數學，物理。符合巴克斯特所說的那樣， “知識的評估是根據其實用性” 。清教徒對實用性非常重視，因為他們的視野是在重塑世界，而不僅僅是教會結構。因為神的掌管自然的一部分任務，是委任給人類；人類需要了解，並如何在適當情況下，控制自然。清教徒專注於上帝的榮耀，顯見祂的創作裏，清教徒的這種看法於宗教歷史中、是與眾不同的。
Merton attributed to the Puritans a “profound anxiety concerning their spiritual grace,” which led them to seek indicators as to whether they were among the heaven bound elect. A profusion of good works, such as advancement in science, illustrated God’s wisdom and perfection, benefited humanity, and thus provided evidence of election. Max Weber had advanced this connection in 1905 and applied it to the development of capitalism. Merton’s contention is that good works, especially useful science and technology, would work as well as wealth.
默頓歸因於清教徒有“對他們靈性上的恩赦有深刻的焦慮”，這導致他們尋求的指標，顯示他們是否被選在天堂之中 。一個優秀的作工，如推進科學的進步、表現上帝的智慧和完美、來造福人類，從而提供了被選上的證據。Max Weber (馬克斯·韋伯) 在1905年，已經提前指出此連結，並將其應用到資本主義的發展。 默頓的論點是好的作工，尤其是有用的科技，會成為符合上述要求和帶來財富。
In summary, Merton’s argument was that, for Puritans, “natural philosophy (science) was instrumental first, in establishing practical proofs of the scientist’s
state of grace; second, in enlarging control of nature; and third, in glorifying God. Science was thus enlisted in the service of individual, society and deity.” Though Merton could find many quotes
to establish his second and third plank of the Puritan ethos, he seems to have been unable to support his state of grace factor with a statement from a seventeenth-century
綜上所述，默頓的論據是，對於清教徒，“自然哲學（ 科學 ），第一是主要用來建立證明、科學家的得救恩典情境；第二，在擴大控制自然的能力；第三，在榮耀神。因此，科學是被用來服務個人，社會和上帝的 “ 。 雖然默頓可以找到很多的引證，來支持建立他的有關清教徒的第二和第三綱目，他似乎仍然無法、用一個17世紀科學家的聲明，來支持他的得救恩典因素的說法。
Other authors also commented on the nature of the religious influence. de Candolle’s article speculated that the prevalence of Protestants in the major scientific societies was due to the authoritarian nature of other religious expressions which discourages “curiosity, the mother of the sciences.” He claimed that in general the Protestant faith encouraged independent thought, although he noted that no relevant science was produced in Calvin’s presumably authoritarian Geneva in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Stimson attributed the effect to the “Puritan concentration of attention upon the Bible,” which “had a remarkable educative effect on many minds” and she conjectured “the insistence on literal truthfulness has probably not been without its effect in developing the scientific temper.” She also posited the Puritan appeal to reason as a factor. Jones saw less of a religious impulse to the scientific advances than a cooperation and coordination between the Puritans and the early chemist and physicist Roger Bacon. Jones claimed that the respect for the pursuit of truth, an uncommon enthusiasm for manual experiments and a strong belief in Progress all originated with Roger Bacon, who may not have been a Puritan himself, but whose ideas were congenial to the Puritans.
其他作者還談到宗教影響的性質。de Candolle (德坎多爾) 的文章推測，更正教徒佔各大科學協會的主流，是由於其他宗教有的獨裁、威權作法，即反對、阻止“科學之母的好奇心” 。他聲稱，大致上，更正教的信仰、鼓勵獨立思考；雖然他指出，沒有相關的科學產生在、十六，十七世紀、加爾文專制的日內瓦。Stimson (史汀生) 歸因於“清教徒集中關注於聖經”，而 “在許多人的心中，產生了顯著的教育效果”，她推測，“堅持文字的真實性，也影響了、科學本質的發展”  。她也推斷，清教徒注重理智也是一個主要因素。Jones (瓊斯) 認為宗教衝擊力對科學進步的影響，比對清教徒和早期的化學家和物理學家羅傑培根 (Roger Bacon) 之間的合作與協調的影響少。瓊斯 (Jones) 稱，對追求真理的尊重，一種罕見的熱衷於動手作實驗、和對進步的堅定信念，都源於培根。他本身、可能不是一個清教徒，但他的想法、和清教徒的思想一致。
These early works paved the way for other scholars to pursue this research vein. For instance, British scientist and historian S. F. Mason acknowledged Merton’s work but felt that the assault by the Reformers on medieval theology, and by scientists (such as cosmologists) on medieval science, paved the way for modern science, and he faulted Merton for neglecting the specific content of scientific knowledge in his development. Historian T. K. Rabb recognized in 1962 some positive features in the Thesis but noted that “Instead of a definition, Merton chose the writings of one man, Richard Baxter…for his description of the Puritan ethos.” No one man could be considered representative−a definition was necessary. He concluded that while religion may have provided a sanction it did not provide a motive. It was Puritanism’s political and revolutionary ethos that inspired science, and even that influence was but slight. Although British historian A. Robert Hall’s 1962 complaint that sociological factors are external and secondary to the internal dynamic and intellectual development of science itself contributed nothing new, he noted correctly that Merton had not assessed the contributions of the many scientists on the continent who were neither Puritan nor Protestant.
這些早期作品鋪了這方向的研究，成為其他學者追求這項研究脈絡。舉例來說，英國科學家和歷史學家SF梅森 (S. F. Mason) 承認默頓的工作，但認為宗教改革者對中世紀神學的攻擊、和科學家（如宇宙學家）對中世紀科學的攻擊，鋪成了現代科學的道路。他指責默頓，在他的發展中、忽視了科學知識的特殊內容 。歷史學家，TK拉布 (T. K. Rabb) 在1962年承認、默頓論文的一些積極的特點，但指出，“不去作一個定義，默頓只是選用了巴克斯特 (Richard Baxter) 個人的寫作 ， ...作為他對於清教徒精神的描述 “ 。沒有一個人、可以被視為代表，作定義是必要的。他認為，雖然宗教可以提供一個容許的環境、它沒有提供一個動機。他認為是清教主義的政治和革命精神，鼓舞了科學，但雖然有影響、卻是輕微的。雖然英國歷史學家，A.羅伯特·霍爾 (A. Robert Hall ) 在1962年投訴說，社會學的因素是外因，它是繼發於科學的內在動力和智力發展，本身沒有造成什麼新鮮事；他正確地指出，默頓更沒有評估，許多歐洲大陸的科學家，他們既非清教徒、也不是更正教徒的貢獻。 
Many of the critiques reflect dissatisfaction with Merton’s methodology. Sociologist Gary Abraham observed that the annoyance of the historians with Merton was that he did not establish a straight-line connection between religion and science and was vague on definitions, two elements vital to historical inquires. For example, Merton did not establish his point with formal Puritan doctrine, and as there were no card carrying Puritans, he could not firmly establish the religious affiliation of his subjects. Abraham concluded that historians resented the vagueness of Merton’s appeal to “cultural values” and thus missed the significance of the sociological part of the analysis.
許多批評、反映出對默頓的方法不滿。社會學家，加里·亞伯拉罕 (Gary Abraham) 觀察出，歷史學家對默頓的責難是，他沒有建立宗教和科學之間的直線連接，是含糊的定義，這兩個因素對歷史調查、至關重要。 例如，默頓沒有用正規清教徒教義、建立他的觀點，且沒有、能指名道姓的清教徒，他不能牢固樹立他的主題的宗教關聯。亞伯拉罕的結論是，歷史學家對，默頓含糊地訴諸於“文化價值”、從而在分析中、遺漏了社會學部分的意義，感到憤怒。
Other scholarship focused on causal factors other than Merton’s. Historian Herbert Butterfield’s history of modern science does not mention Merton, but he does discuss the seventeenth century, especially the contribution of Roger Bacon and Rene Descartes. As far back as Aristotle, it was believed that natural activity, such as the motion of bodies, was directed by supernatural movers and that the various objects of matter likely had souls. The Renaissance brought with it ancient knowledge, ancient myths, and a renewed paganism such as “the belief in panpsychism and animism, which gave everything a soul.” However, “Protestantism…had an elasticity that enabled it to make alliances with the scientists and the rationalistic movements...” and presumably to disenchant the universe. Butterfield cites “semi-technical reasons” for this elasticity but does not describe them, merely crediting pious Protestants with successfully resisting the notion that nature was capricious and that matter had a guiding force of its own. There is a probable parallel here with Merton’s focus on the glory of God being manifest in His creation and He being all the guiding force nature needed.
其他學者，關注在基本因素、而非默頓的論文。歷史學家，赫伯特·巴特菲爾德 (Herbert Butterfield) 的現代科學史、並沒有提到默頓，但他確實討論了十七世紀，尤其是羅傑·培根 (Roger Bacon) 和笛卡爾 (Rene Descartes) 的特別的貢獻。 早在亞里士多德 (Aristotle)時期，有人認為自然的活動，如物體運動，是超自然的推動者指導，和各種事務很可能有靈魂 。文藝復興帶來了古老的知識，古代神祕主張，和外邦異教的更新、如 “相信泛心論和萬物有靈論，給每個東西、一個靈魂 “ 。然而，“更正教派......有一彈性，使得它能與科學家和理性主義運動聯盟......”，打算要解除宇宙的妖術。 巴特菲爾德，援引“半技術原因”，來談這個彈性，但沒有詳述他們；只歸功虔誠的更正教徒，成功抵禦了概念，即自然是反覆無常，物體有它自己的引導力。這可能是類似於默頓的重點，即上帝的創作體現上帝的榮耀和祂實實在在是萬物的引導力。
Dutch historian R. Hooykaas’ history of the influence of religion on science, like Butterfield’s, highlights the importance of overcoming pantheistic views of nature. With Butterfield, he noted the Renaissance reintroduction, via Greek scientific concepts, of “the over estimate of human reason; the underestimate of manual labor…and the deification of nature.” This reinforced a distain for manual labor involved with experiments as well as a belief in the great danger of intruding on Nature’s prerogative; “…the penalty for intrusion into that realm is divine vengeance.” Against this view he cites Robert Boyle’s observation that both science and religion are based on fundamentals that are incomprehensible, which means that they must rely on research into “historical” facts rather than rationally self-contained ones. “The scientist finds in nature much that he does not thoroughly understand” as does the Bible reader and hence reason alone is not sufficient to study either. Most ascetic Protestants did not combine studying nature with studying biblical theology, as the two sources were different ways of providing knowledge of God and needed different tools.
荷蘭歷史學家，R. Hooykaas(胡卡斯)寫的宗教影響科學的歷史，就如同巴特菲爾德(Butterfield) 的論點，強調克服自然的泛神論觀點的重要性。 和巴特菲爾德一樣，他指出通過希臘的科學概念，文藝復興再導入，“過度評價人類理性; 輕視體力勞動......與神格化自然“ 。這進一步強化了，一個不屑於參與實驗的體力勞動以及入侵自然的特權、會有巨大危險; 和“...闖入該領域、是神明的處罰”的信仰 。反對這種觀點，他引用了羅伯特·波義耳 (Robert Boyle) 的看法，即科學和宗教都是基於，很難理解的基礎；這意味著他們必須依靠研究“歷史的”事實、而不是理性化自我包容的各因素。 “科學家在自然界的發現，比他沒有搞明白的多”，跟聖經的讀者一樣；所以單獨研習理性，也是不足的。 大多數苦行更正教徒，沒有同時研習自然與學習聖經神學，因為這兩個來源、是提供認識上帝的不同的方式，是需要不同的工具。
Hooykaas points to the Puritan tendency to attribute significant high value to manual crafts as important to scientific progress since experiments require manual skills. Puritan William Perkins, for example, considered that the work of a manual tradesman, performed to the glory of God, to be equivalent to the value to that of a minister. He quoted the statistics provided by Merton on the disproportionally high contributions of English Puritans and continental Protestants to high value science but objects to Merton’s proposal of the doctrine of election as a contributor due to lack of evidence. He notes that the various Reformed Confessions of Faith, such as the Heidelberg Confession, considered such labors as gratitude for salvation, not reassurance for having received it. The scientists themselves largely expressed delight in studying nature because it is the work of God. He summarizes Calvin’s view of experiments and science and sees ample evidence that Calvin supported both and would have encouraged the Puritans in this endeavor. Within Merton’s framework, Hooykaas’s analysis emphasizes the glorification of god plank while dismissing the election plank.
Historian Eugene Klaaren contributed an insightful and clarifying dissertation and a book on the enduring controversy over why modern science and technology sprang to life in ←Seventeenth Century England. Klaaren’s solution focuses on the crucial contribution of the Puritan’s doctrine of creation. He critiqued the various prior treatments, including Merton’s, whose descriptions of Puritan motivations were, he concludes, unconvincing. He did agree with Merton that all of society fit in a religious framework: “From the advent of Christendom until its…demise, Christianity was part of the criticism, destruction, construction, and maintenance of culture.” However, he correctly claims that the Puritans needed more than a subjective religious “ethos” in order to succeed as spectacularly as they did.
歷史學家尤金卞拉耳 (Eugene Klaaren) 提供了一篇有洞察力和澄清的論文，和一本書、為什麼現代科學和技術飛躍發生於十七世紀英國的持久爭論。卞拉耳的解決方案，專注於清教徒的創造信條的重要貢獻。他批判了各種先前的論述，包括默頓有關清教徒動機的描述，因為他認為、它不能令人信服。他同意默頓的整個社會是在一個的宗教框架裡：“從基督教的來臨，直到它...衰退；基督教是，批評、破壞、建設和維護文化的一部分” 。然而，他正確地聲稱，清教徒，需要超過一個主觀的宗教“精神”，才能來解釋像他們那樣輝煌地成就。
Klaaren asserts that the major cause for Puritan dominance in science and technology was that their doctrine of creation was voluntaristic--that God's creation of the world was subject to no criteria but His will. Thus God may will to create some parts of his creation in one manner and others in a different manner with the result that human reason cannot be expected to know the meaning and nature of creation through introspection and intuition. Consequently, the search for knowledge must be conducted with humility, experiments, and attentive respect to God’s creation: “God acts not because something is good, but because He acts it is good.” 
He contends this view was inherited from Calvin, who taught that because creation is continually and ultimately dependent on God’s power, all creation must be
considered separately. Natural law is but God’s law and should be reviewed with gratitude. Calvin affirmed that “there is need of art and more exacting toil in order to investigate the motion
of the stars, to determine their assigned stations, to measure their intervals, to note their properties.” Calvin was critical of the Renaissance view that equated the creation with the body of God.
This point was especially important to the English scientists who also rejected the view that nature was even a secondary deity. Klaaren quotes Robert Boyle as affirming from Genesis that while some
presume “that nature by her plastic power and skill, forms plants and animals out of the universal matter, the divine historian ascribes the formation of them to God’s immediate fiat.” In other
words, although they were prone to quote scripture, the scientific virtuosi of the period were careful to separate the theology of redemption from the theology of creation. This view is consistent
with Hooykaas. Klaaren noted the seventeenth-century revolutionary spirit and observed, as had Merton, that new ways of perceiving creation were not unexpected. In summary, he felt that he had
shown that “belief in creation constituted a definite context within which the basic questions of major figures in the advent of the new science were raised, pursued, and
他主張這種觀點是來自卡爾文(Calvin) ，他說，因為創作是持續不斷的，並完全依靠上帝的力量，所有的創造必須視為獨立個體。自然法不僅是上帝的律法，更要感恩的遵照。卡爾文(Calvin) 肯定，“研究星星的運動，需要藝術，更嚴格的辛勞，才能確定其預定的位置，測量它們的間隔，知道它們的性質” 。加爾文(Calvin) 批判文藝復興時期的，創作等同於神的身體的觀點。這一點對英國的科學家特別重要，他們也反對自然甚至是第二個上帝的觀點。 卞拉耳引述羅伯特·博伊爾(Robert Boyle)的看法來自創世紀，“雖然自然經由它塑造的力量和技能，從宇宙的物質、形成出植物和動物，神學的歷史學家將這些東西的形成歸於上帝的即時命令”。換句話說，雖然他們是容易引用經文，這一時期的科學名家謹慎地、分開贖回神學和創建的神學。這種觀點與胡卡斯一致。 卞拉耳注意到，十七世紀的革命精神，也和默頓一樣觀察到，新的方式來感知創造、不是不可期待。總之，他覺得他已經表明，“創造的信念、已構成一個明確的環境，在其中新科學的問世、主要形態的科学界的基本問題就是提出問題，窮追不捨，並發展” 。
From a review of the scholarly reception of Merton’s thesis and related historical studies, it is clear there is a consensus view that Puritans had an
inordinate influence in the development of science and technology during seventeenth century England. Merton attributes this to a threefold Puritan ethos. However, while he adequately illustrated two
aspects of that ethos-that Puritans did find that high religious value in controlling nature as part of serving humanity and bringing glory to God, the third, the sociological effect of the doctrine
of election, was not well supported. Klaaren later suggested that the Calvinist doctrine of creation provides a better documented Puritan motivation. The creation provided another book from God that
could be profitably studied to learn from Him. Klaaren and Merton could have profitably used the argument, partially suggested by Butterfield and Hooykaas that the Puritan doctrine of Providence and
abandonment of concepts of nature inherited from the pre-Christian Celtics, and reinforced by the Renaissance’s reintroduction of Greek notions of nature was vital for experimental
The view that the creation was part of divinity or controlled by angels or demons would reasonably be a considerable detriment to experiments. (If you mess too much with the realm of the celestial powers, you’re open to a Sisyphus style result). The Puritan’s view of nature was that it could be examined safely and that experiments on nature could be conducted by godly people. Experimentation has proved to be vital for progress in science, and a proper view of creation was, and is, essential to encourage them. In addition, the processing of the experimental results into scientific systems would have been inhibited by the view that nature is dependent on the capricious will of moody and generally warring celestial powers, or even vindictive saints or devils, as that opposes the concept of set natural laws and is unlikely to produce a scientific worldview.
從學術界接受默頓的論文和相關歷史研究的回顧，很顯然有一個共識，認為清教徒在十七世紀英格蘭的科學和技術的發展有重要影響。默頓歸因於這三重清教徒精神。然而，儘管他充分的說明了兩种精神，即是清教徒控制自然為人類服務，和把榮耀歸給神。然而，第三精神”檢選舉教義社會學的影響的”，並沒有很好地支持。 卞拉耳後認為，加爾文主義的創作學說提供了更好的記錄清教徒的動機。神的創造是神提供的另一本書，讓我們可以研讀、而能得到祂的教導。 卞拉耳和默頓可以更有效使用這一個論點，也是巴特菲爾德和胡卡斯 (Butterfield and Hooykaas)的部分建議，即清教徒神的眷顧的教義與捨棄異教有關自然的概念 (就是自基督教以前的凱爾特人的觀念，且被文藝復興時期、再置入的希臘觀念的強化)、對實驗科學是極為重要的概念。
這創造是神性的一部分，或由天使或惡魔控制的觀點，可以很合理地、被認為不利於科技的實驗。[如果你是與天體權力的境界混淆不清，你接受西西弗斯式 Sisyphus style)的結果]。清教徒對自然的觀點是，它可以被安全地檢驗，和對大自然的實驗、可以由敬虔的人執行。實驗已經被證明、在科學的進步上是為至關重要；並且一個合適的、創造的觀點，對鼓勵實驗的發展是一個必須的條件。此外，認為自然是依賴於易怒地、反覆無常的意志和到處交戰的天體權力，甚至是報復性的聖人或惡魔們；這觀念會抑制實驗結果加入科學系統、也會反對設置自然律法的概念，這種觀念不可能產生科學的世界觀。
The picture painted by these analyses would be helped by consideration of another relevant Puritan doctrine. Their doctrine of the future was post-millennial.
This viewpoint provided a confident view of the direction of history which supports contributing to that direction with technological development. Post millennialism would contribute the view that
God’s kingdom is being established and that history is under control. This would encourage the belief that scientific and technological progress is possible and desirable, and provide incentive for
science and technology to flourish.
Merton’s crediting a specific sociological “ethos” for the explosion of science and technology in seventeenth century England could have been better buttressed with Puritan doctrines, such as Providence, Creation, and Post-Millennialism. One can infer that science and technology derive from a world view that can answer the questions: 1) is the universe under control? And 2) does history has a direction? Behind these questions: What is God like? The Puritan understanding of God, history and nature propelled science and technology into the modern world, yet in the modern world the answer to these questions no longer provides the motivation and sanction for science and technology. It may be that their sanction is now their pragmatic utility. An open question is whether utility is adequate, or whether an existential rationale is necessary to maintain a technological culture.
Butterfield, Herbert. The Origins of Modern Science. New York: The Free Press, 1957.
Carroll, James W. “Merton’s Thesis on English Science.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 13 (July 1954): 427-432.
Cohen, Bernard, ed. Puritanism and the Rise of Modern Science: The Merton Thesis. New Brunswick and London: Rutgers University Press, 1990.
Hooykaas, R. Religion and the Rise of Modern Science. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1972.
Klaaren, Eugene. Religious Origins of Modern Science. Grand Rapids: William B Eerdmans, 1977.
Lewis, Donald, Lecture Notes, HIST 502, History of Christianity II (Vancouver: Regent College, 1998), 13.
Mason, S. F. “The Scientific Revolution and the Protestant Reformation.” Annals of Science 9 (1953): 64-87.
Merton, Robert K. Science, Technology & Society in Seventeenth Century England. New York: Howard Fertig, 1970.
Stimson, Dorothy. “Puritanism and the New Philosophy in Seventeenth-Century England.” Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine 3 (1935): 321-334.
Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1930
. Robert K. Merton, Science, Technology & Society in Seventeenth Century England (New York: Howard Fertig 1970).
. Ibid., xvi.
. Ibid., 5.
. Ibid., 114.
. Bernard Cohen, ed., Puritanism and the Rise of Modern Science: The Merton Thesis (New Brunswick and London: Rutgers University Press, 1990), 145-158.
. Dorothy Stimson, “Puritanism and the New Philosophy in Seventeenth-Century England” Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine 3 (1935): 321-334.
. Cohen (1990), 159-170.
. Ibid., 178-180.
. James W. Carroll, “Merton’s Thesis on English Science” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 13 (July 1954): 427-432.
. Merton, 1970, 64.
. Ibid., 66.
. Ibid., 72.
. Ibid., 62.
. Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1930).
. Ibid., 85.
Cohen (1990). “The Influence of Religion on the Development of the Sciences”: 148
. Stimson, “Puritanism and the New Philosophy.”
. S. F. Mason, “The Scientific Revolution and the Protestant Reformation” Annals of Science 9 (1953): 64-87.
. Cohen, Puritanism and the Rise, 209-223.
. Ibid., 224-232.
. Ibid., 233-245.
. Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science (New York: The Free Press, 1957).
. Ibid., 19.
. Ibid., 85.
. Ibid., 70.
. R. Hooykaas, Religion and the Rise of Modern Science (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1972).
. Ibid., xiii.
. Ibid., 56.
. Ibid., 48.
. Ibid., 92.
. Eugene Klaaren, Religious Origins of Modern Science (Grand Rapids: William B Eerdmans, 1977).
. Ibid., 29.
. Ibid., 40.
. Ibid., 41.
. Ibid., 151.
. Ibid., 186.
. Donald Lewis, Lecture Notes, HIST 502, History of Christianity II (Vancouver: Regent College, 1998), 13. October, 2014
此語出自一偉人, 愛因斯坦即此人, 發現著名相對論, 劃時代的科學聖.
他對天體之設計. 驚嘆宇宙之浩大, 相信全能創造主,信心之人科學家.
力學大師名牛頓,蘋果落地深思終, 發現了萬有引力, 稜鏡分光為彩虹,
又為光學開先路, 後創數術微積分, 牛頓著作可充棟.觧經巨著被怱聞.
許多中外科學家, 相信神造萬物間, 早已定好自然律, 才被科學家發現.
神造地球為樂園, 距離太陽正合宜,遠則冰凍近燃燒. 地球自轉公轉奇,
晝夜季節都合適, 春耕秋收供應足, 白日工作夜休息,人類安居樂業所.
太陽地球質量對, 氫氧炭全都齊場, 人吸氧吐二化炭. 樹吸二化炭放氧,
氮氧比例正得當, 不然呼吸不合宜, 燃燒起火成災難. 氫氧同存水供飲,
無水生命不能生, 你我不可能生存. 神愛咱們創地球, 以己形象造人們.
愛護我們如子女, 不幸始祖犯神禁, 被逐伊甸東門外, 差遣耶穌神愛心.
十架代罪寶血淋, 凡信衪的罪洗盡, 恩賜永生可歸天, 歡聚天堂拜神親.
The second law of thermodynamics is very interesting. It basically says that all natural processes are not reversible without adding energy. In other word,
efficiency of a mechanical system will not be 100% because of waste heat generation. The second law of thermodynamics states that the state of entropy of the entire universe, as an isolated system,
will always increase over time. Put it in another way, chaos of a system will tend to increase over time.
In the real world natural processes, the second law has immense impacts to our quality of life. For example, most of the mechanical systems such as car
engines have about 30% efficiency. If without this law, we could have, say an automobile gas mileage of about 90 to 100 miles per gallon instead of 30 miles per gallon. If we expand the
influence of this law to include thousands and thousands of the thermodynamics systems in the world, we can see the immensity of this law and its impacts to our lives. We could even venture to say
that the world will go more chaos with time and that the human beings could not be evolved into better species unless great effort/energy is put into such an evolution process.
Worst of all, we could blame this law for the eventual decaying of our biological systems as well. One of the engineering design and manufacturing goals is to minimize impacts of the law including the waste heat generation and hence increase the efficiency of a system. However, we have not been able to kill this law.
Main tasks of the scientific community are to find the laws which govern our physical/chemical/biological systems. It is not a scientific endeavor to speculate why this law exists for our world. However, from an individual viewpoint, it is indeed very unsatisfactory to accept the status quo of this law which in some way mandates the finiteness of our life span. To discuss why this law applies to us, we are then marching from “what is this law” of the scientific domain to the “why this law exists and how can this law be reversed” in the religion domain.
From the biblical perspective, both the world and its operating laws were created or imposed by the Creator. From an atheistic perspective, there was no god
and every living being was evolved from a simpler life forms to more complex life forms. How the laws governing complex life forms come about remains of course a real setback for the evolutionists to
explain. Since we are not dealing with this subject from an atheistic viewpoint, we would therefore concentrate our discussion from the biblical perspective.
According to Genesis, in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Also, we are told that all the creatures were good. Adam and Eve, our human ancestors, were also created and were good as well. Every created things was perfect in the sense that mankind was supposed to have the image of its Creator and was ordained to manage this new world. It is interesting to know that God is love and He did not create Adam and Eve to die. This means that man was created to have an eternal loving relationship and fellowship with God. You may ask how do you know that. Romans 5:12; ”12 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned”. Thus, death came after Adam and Eve sinned. This clearly indicates that before Adam sinned, there was no death to all living things.
Actually, because Adam sinned, the ground was cursed. This was indeed a very sad day for the human race. Genesis 3:17-19 describes the following;
17 Then to Adam He said, “Because you have heeded the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree of which I commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat of it’: “Cursed is the ground for your sake; In toil you shall eat of it. All the days of your life.18 Both thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you, And you shall eat the herb of the field.
19 In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread. Till you return to the ground,
For out of it you were taken; For dust you are, And to dust you shall return.”
17又對亞當說：「你既聽從妻子的話，吃了我所吩咐你不可吃的那樹上的果子，地必為你的緣故受咒詛，你必終身勞苦，才能從地裡得吃的。 18地必給你長出荊棘和蒺藜來，你也要吃田間的菜蔬。 19你必汗流滿面才得糊口，直到你歸了土，因為你是從土而出的。你本是塵土，仍要歸於塵土。」
In a real sense, here came the Second Law of Thermodynamics to cause such a unimaginable heart ache in our human history. As a result of Adam’s sin, they were
evicted from the paradise and we human beings were spiritually separated from the sweet fellowship with our Creator as well. What a sad story indeed.
You may ask; is there any way that man can return to the paradise? Or even more importantly, can we go back to the sweet fellowship with our Creator? Or put it
in another way, when will the second law of thermodynamics be suspended in the future?
From the Christian perspective, sin needs to be completely cleansed from the world. Since human beings are dead in transgressions, we cannot do anything about it just as we cannot do anything to suspend the second law of thermodynamics today or any future days by our effort. It is indeed hopeless!! This was portrayed vividly in the Bible. In Revelation Chapter 5, there was a scene that a mighty angel is asking who can claim the title deed of the earth. Apostle John was crying and crying because no one in heaven and on earth or under the earth was found worthy to open the scroll or look inside. At this point, no one of human race in all human history was found worthy to claim this earth back due to sins. What follow in the Revelation 5:5-14 is the Gospel- the good news to all who want so desperately to return to the sweet fellowship with our Creator.
5 But one of the elders said to me, “Do not weep. Behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has prevailed to open the scroll and to loose its seven seals.” 6 And I looked, and behold, in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as though it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent out into all the earth. 7 Then He came and took the scroll out of the right hand of Him who sat on the throne. 8 Now when He had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. 9 And they sang a new song, saying: “You are worthy to take the scroll, And to open its seals; For You were slain, And have redeemed us to God by Your blood Out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation, 10 And have made us kings and priests to our God;And we shall reign on the earth.” 11 Then I looked, and I heard the voice of many angels around the throne, the living creatures, and the elders; and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands, 12 saying with a loud voice: “Worthy is the Lamb who was slain To receive power and riches and wisdom, And strength and honor and glory and blessing!” 13 And every creature which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, I heard saying: “Blessing and honor and glory and power Be to Him who sits on the throne, And to the Lamb, forever and ever!” 14 Then the four living creatures said, “Amen!” And the twenty-four elders fell down and worshiped Him who lives forever and ever.
If you are a chemist, you know how difficult it is to remove a contaminant completely. For example, we can relatively easy to remove 90% of the
contaminants. but to remove the contaminant completely would require us to remove every atom of the contaminants which will take astronomical scale of effort or energy to do it. This is why it
required for God to sacrifice His Only Begotten Son Jesus Christ to be our sacrifice to redeem us for our corruption sinful nature. What is so incredible and hence so great a grace to me that God
even sent His Son to die for me a sinner. Amazing love indeed!
This was so vividly described in 1 John 4:9-10.
9 In this the love of God was manifested toward us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through Him. 10 In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins.
這是如此生動地、在約翰一書4：9-10描述: 9神差他獨生子到世間來，使我們藉著他得生，神愛我們的心在此就顯明了。 10不是我們愛神，乃是神愛我們，差他的兒子為我們的罪做了挽回祭，這就是愛了。
In summary, for those of us who hate deeply the Second Law of Thermodynamics, it is indeed a great hope that this law will eventually be revoked. Although at
the present time, all living things are yoked under this law as described in the following verses:
Romans 8:18-21 From Suffering to Glory
18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. 19 For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God. 20 For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it in hope; 21 because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.
Our great God promises us that when Christ returns to be the King of kings and Lord of the Lords, this law will be voided completely.
Revelation 21:1-7 All Things Made New
21 Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea. 2 Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, “Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them and be their God. 4 And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away.” 5 Then He who sat on the throne said, “Behold, I make all things new.” And He said to me, “Write, for these words are true and faithful.”
6 And He said to me, “It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. 7 He who overcomes shall inherit all things, and I will be his God and he shall be My son.
May we keep our faith and offer our due gratitude and praises to our Lord Jesus Christ who willingly died for us to redeem us to
reconcile with God. May we join the great cosmic adoration to our God and our Lord Jesus Christ;
“Blessing and honor and glory and power
Be to Him who sits on the throne,
And to the Lamb, forever and ever!”
當前無神進化論, Nowadays atheists
強調萬物無神始, Insist that all live things did not require the Creator.
生物來自無生物, Life came from non-life.
後者何來確不知.How non-life came to be is unknown.
進化論者無答案, Evolutionists have no answers.
竟說生命來太空; They say life came from outer space.
再詢太空生命源, They have no answer to the origin of life from outer space.
啞口無言仍自哄; They are deceiving themselves because no mechanism can produce life.
若問生物怎進化, If hard-pressed to the origin of how life evolved,
多謂突變所造像; they propose that mutation caused changes.
可惜突變致退化, But known mutations cause degeneration.
又倡魔變蛇變象; They even proposed the Hopeful Monster Theory!
達爾文寫進化論, When Darwin wrote the origin of species,
謂創造主吹氣生; he said life was the breath of the Creator.
今日進化論者們, Today's evolutionists could not verify his claim,
既無實驗可確証; nor any experiments to perform for verification.
反說他人是迷信. Instead they say creationists are superstitious.
大爆炸論被提倡, They propose the Big Bang.
進化論者樂參加, Evolutionists jump on the band wagon.
可惜此論乏原創. The problem is that the Big Bang needs an origin.
爆炸前質點何來, Where did matter come before the Big Bang?
能量又從何開始; Where did energy come from?
天体之大無法測, The immensity of the heavens is hard to fathom.
質點之小亦難知,We hardly know the smallest particles.
分子結構何奇妙, The structure of matter is amazing.
遺傳單位DNA; The hereditary unit is the DNA.
排列組合生命語, Its arrangement spells out the language of life.
豈能偶然能拼匯, How could it come about by random chance.
近代發現恐龍骨, In recent years, they discovered plenty of dinosaur bones.
骨髓蛋白質仍存, Bone marrow and proteins still exist in the bones.
若牠滅種六億年, If dinosaurs became extinct 60 million years ago,
蛋白分觧未發生? then proteins dissociation has occurred.
海中發現化石魚, They found the deep sea coelacanth, the so-called fossil fish.
仍然如故沒進化, There were no evolution in these millions of years.
德州河床早發現, In the Paluxy River bed in Texas,
恐龍人足印並發. dinosaur and human footprints crisscross each other.
海籣火山近爆發, Mount Saint Helens volcano exploded in May 1982.
數年之後大谷成, Canyons were formed in a few years.
猶大山谷長期生, Utah canyons and pillars were not eroded.
不攻自破進化論. Gravity should have eroded them all long ago.
多位教授被訪問, Most professors still believe in evolution.
坦然默認進化論, They have not been able to explain fossil gaps.
化石連鎖空洞多, There were no missing links, but missing chain.
缺乏絕對之鐵証. Evolution lacks indisputable proof.
高級數學作計算, It has been calculated by advanced math and probability.
時間絕不夠進化; There is just not enough time for evolution to occur.
進化論實不合理, Thus, evolution of life from non-life is beyond reason.
唯有創造能答話. The only answer is Creation by design.
聖經告知造物主, The Bible clearly states the occurrence of life.
全能全智耶和華; All were done by the omnipotent and omniscient Creator.
說有就有萬物創, He spoke all life forms to exist.
六日之內宇宙花, In six days He created them all.
始祖違命遭罪罰, Our ancestors disobeyed and death came upon them.
神子耶穌代贖亡; God provided the plan of redemption through Jesus who died for our sins.
信主得救成兒女, Believing in Jesus will become the children of God.
創造之功終榮光.The glory of Creation will be restored.
---------------樓鎧 2010 春 Micah Leo, 2010 Spring
We are in a 21 century modern society. Science and technology has advanced a great deal for last couple hundred of years. In reviewing what we know about the status of science and technology, we are amazed about the infrastructural settings in the dimensional scale revealed through science and technology. You may ask what are you talking about.
First of all, Romans 1:20 clearly declares “ For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—His eternal power and divine nature—have been
clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse.” So we want to explore what we know in the dimensional scale. Our understanding of this reality will confirm
what Romans 1:20 tells us and will also expose the falsehood of the evolutional hypothesis.
首先，羅馬書 1:20 清楚地表明：“20 自從造天地以來，神的永能和神性是明明可知的，雖是眼不能見，但藉著所造之物就可以曉得，叫人無可推諉"。所以我們想要探索，我們所知道的、空間的尺度 。我們對這個現實的理解，將證實羅馬書 1:20 所告訴我們的教導，並且也會揭露、進化論的錯誤。
The following are a few facts revealed by science and technology.
1. The universe consists of billions of stars and galaxies. The diameter of our Milky Way galaxy is about 100,000 light years. A light year is the distance traveled by light in a year. The speed of light is about 186,000 miles per second which amounts to traveling around the earth 7.5 times in a second. So the size of the universe is in the astronomical scale and is indeed beyond our comprehension.
2. For the living creatures, the sizes are normally from the blue whales to viruses and their sizes range from about 100 meters down to 10 nanometer. A
nanometer is a billionth of a meter. We cannot see anything smaller than say, a thousandth of a centimeter with our naked eyes. Thus, there are many living things that we cannot see without a
microscope. One of the things that we learn from modern science and technology is that most of primitive living things consist of infrastructural setting in the molecular scale. The sizes of
molecules are in the range of one hundredth of a micron and a micron or a micrometer is one millionth of a meter. Thus, living things are made of cells mostly in the ranges of a hundredth or a
thousandth of a micron.
3. From modern physics, we know that all things (living or not) are further made of atoms. So a molecule is made of atoms. Now the sizes of atoms are in the
ranges of a hundredth of a micron. Even in the atomic scale, we know that there is an infrastructural setting. For example, we know that the material world is comprised with all kind of atoms from
light atoms such as hydrogen, helium, carbon, to heavy atoms such as uranium, thorium, and plutonium etc.
4. Now within the atomic scale world, each atom has its structural setting including a nucleus and surrounding orbiting electrons. Now a nucleus consists of a
combination of neutrons and protons. The size of nucleus is in the range of a thousandth of a nanometer which is much much smaller than size of an atom. Neutrons, protons, and electrons are subatomic
particles which make up atoms.
5. As we go towards smaller and smaller dimensional scales, our concept of particles become less precise as many particles in these dimensional scales exhibit
both particle and wave properties.
So what do we learn from modern science and technology?
a. At different dimensional scales, there are different infrastructural settings including different structural components and a set of laws governing the
operations of the components in their worlds so to speak. For example, in the world of living things, there are structural components such as cells, proteins, DNA etc, made out of molecules and are
governed by biological and chemical processes.
b. Each of the different dimensional scale worlds is not independent to each other. Rather, they are built from the infrastructural setting smaller than their
infrastructural setting. For example, the chemical reactions can be explained by the exchanges/sharing of the electrons in the atomic world.
c. Thus, what kind of fools are we to talk about evolution of single cell to a complex biological system like human beings if we are so much ignorant
about the overall structures of the universe. By the way, how a single cell comes about anyway. Who puts it together from molecules and atoms? Where do all these physical/chemical/biological laws
come from? Do you ever objectively observe evolution of a physical law?
d. As we go from the small dimensional scale to astronomical scale, modern science reveals the governing law of gravitational force. The size of universe,
billions of stars, structure of galaxies, and life cycle of a star indeed reveal how transient is ourselves and how minute are human beings. Yet, Romans 1:20 clearly remind us the power and the
divine nature of our Creator. When the created universe is so vast, we must know that the God who created such a universe is indeed much much greater than we can comprehend. Such a God must reveals
Himself to us if we are ever able to know Him.
d. 當我們從、小的空間尺度到天文大的尺度時，現代科學揭示了萬有引力定律。宇宙的大小，數十億的恆星，銀河星系的結構，以及星星的生命週期，確實揭示了我們人類自己的生命，是如此短暫、瞬息萬變，以及人類是多麼的微小。然而，羅馬書 1:20 清楚地提醒我們、創造主的力量和神性。當所創造的宇宙是如此巨大時，我們必須知道，創造這樣一個宇宙的神、確實比我們所能理解的要大得多。這樣的神必須向我們顯明自己，我們才能認識祂。
e. So it must be ignorant or worst arrogant to teach that we can know such a Creator by our own doing or seeking just as so many religions try to obtain
eternality by human ways.
f. Indeed, this great God did come to reveal Himself through Jesus Christ. What a grace upon grace this Creator revealed Himself first through His creation
such as Romans 1:20 shows us. But even more incredible, this Creator revealed His love through Jesus Christ His Son to us.
f. 的確，這位偉大的神、確實通過耶穌基督來顯露自己。這真是創造主的恩典，首先透過祂的創造，如羅馬書 1:20 對我們的顯示。但更令人難以置信的是，這位創造主通過耶穌基督、祂的兒子，向我們顯現了祂的愛。
The following are a few verses from the Bible to remind us all:
* John 1:1-5
1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was with God in the beginning. 3 Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. 4 In him was life, and that life was the light of all mankind. 5 The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.
1 太初有道，道與神同在，道就是神。 2 這道太初與神同在。 3 萬物是藉著他造的；凡被造的，沒有一樣不是藉著他造的。 4 生命在他裡頭，這生命就是人的光。 5 光照在黑暗裡，黑暗卻不接受光。
* John 3:16
16 For God so loved the world that he gave His one and only Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life.
* John 17:1-5
17 After Jesus said this, He looked toward heaven and prayed:
“Father, the hour has come. Glorify your Son, that your Son may glorify you. 2 For you granted him authority over all people that he might give eternal life to all those you have given him. 3 Now this is eternal life: that they know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent. 4 I have brought you glory on earth by finishing the work you gave me to do. 5 And now, Father, glorify me in your presence with the glory I had with you before the world began.
* 約翰福音 17:1-5
17 耶穌說了這話，就舉目望天說：「父啊，時候到了，願你榮耀你的兒子，使兒子也榮耀你！ 2 正如你曾賜給他權柄管理凡有血氣的，叫他將永生賜給你所賜給他的人。 3 認識你獨一的真神，並且認識你所差來的耶穌基督，這就是永生。 4 我在地上已經榮耀你，你所託付我的事，我已成全了。 5 父啊，現在求你使我同你享榮耀，就是未有世界以先我同你所有的榮耀。
* Jesus comforts His Disciples in John 14:1-4
14 “Do not let your hearts be troubled. You believe in God; believe also in me. 2 My Father’s house has many rooms; if that were not so, would I have told you that I am going there to prepare a place for you? 3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come back and take you to be with me that you also may be where I am. 4 You know the way to the place where I am going.”
* 耶穌在約翰福音14:1-4 中，安慰門徒的心:
14 "你們心裡不要憂愁，你們信神，也當信我。 2 在我父的家裡有許多住處，若是沒有，我就早已告訴你們了，我去原是為你們預備地方去。 3 我若去為你們預備了地方，就必再來接你們到我那裡去，我在哪裡，叫你們也在哪裡。 4 我往哪裡去你們知道，那條路你們也知道"。
* John 6:39
39 And this is the will of him who sent me, that I shall lose none of all those he has given me, but raise them up at the last day.
* 約翰福音 6: 39
以色列阿，你要聽！耶和華 ─ 我們神是獨一的主。
There is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.(See 1 Coringthians 8:6)
萬物都是藉著他有的, 我們也是藉著他有的。(歌林多前書 8:6)
Supremacy of Jesus Christ our Lord - Phil 2:9-11; Col 1:15-20
The name which is above every name that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
主耶穌的絕對優越性—無不口稱耶穌為主 (西 1:15-20)
Inerrancy of Holy Scripture - Psalm 19:7-9, Matt 5:18
Until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished.
Glorious Cross of Our Lord Jesus Christ which demonstrates the love of God - John 3:16-18
16 “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.17 For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him. 18 He who believes in Him is not judged; he who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of Go
神愛世人，甚至將他的獨生子賜給他們，叫一切信他的，不至滅亡，反得永生。 因為神差他的兒子降世，不是要定世人的罪，乃是要叫世人因他得救。 信他的人，不被定罪；不信的人，罪已經定了，因為他不信神獨生子的名。
Obedience to God is much better than offering sacrifices - Hos 6:6
For I delight in loyalty
rather than sacrifice.
And in the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings.
The righteous shall live by faith alone - Habbakuk 2:4
Self-denial and be patient in enduring afflictions are the God's ways for us in following Jesus Christ our Lord - Matthew 16:24
Goal of Redemption is in Sanctification of the Spirit, through Obedience to Jesus Christ, and be Holy to the LORD. Be Ye Holy, For I am Holy.
(1 Peter 1:15-16; Lev 11:45)
救贖的目的是藉著聖靈，順服耶穌基督，歸耶和華為聖。 你們要聖潔，因為我是聖潔的。（彼得前書1:15-16; 利11:45）